Talossan Pronunciation and Spelling

This page gives the letters used in Talossan, along with their values according to the Alfavt Phonetic Talossn (APT) and a Talossan English approximation (except where the sound doesn't occur in English, in which case reference is made to other languages).

Vowels

letter

APT

pronunciation

a

[a]

Like the a in "ah", "father"

1. []
2. []

1. Normally like the "a" in "about", "sofa".
2. In a handful of old words, pronounced like the letter below. The most important of these are qund, snc, vnd, trns.

[]

Like the "a" in "cat", "hat"

[]

Like "aw" in "law, saw"

ae/ai

[aj]

Like the word "eye".

e

1. []
2. [e]

1. like "e" in "met" unless it occurs in one of the four conditions below.
2. like French "" (similar to the "a" in "mate" but a pure vowel, with no "y" sound at the end) when it occurs in the following 4 situations:
   2a. in diphthongs or before another vowel (eg. vu, vidir)
   2b. as the last letter of a word (eg. me, dimpers)
   2c. in the verbal endings -u, -ev-, -etz
   2d. in syllables which are both open and stressed (eg. the first "e" in levent)

[]

like the "a" in "about" (the same as [1] above) except when at the end of irregular verbs (eg. estar, vidar) where it is silent and merely a visual reminder that the verb is irregular.

ei

[ej]

like "ay" in "day", "say"

eu

[w]

like the "i" in "sit" followed by "w" as in "wet" - similar to the interjection of disgust "Eeeeeeww!" said quickly. (Notice the lack of accent mark: if the "e" is accented, u, then the 2 letters are pronounced normally: [eu]

i

1. [i]
2. [j]

1. Normally like the "ee" in "see" (sometimes found written double, but still pronounced just [i])
2. When unstressed before or after another vowel, pronounced like "y" in "yes".

1. []
2. [a]

1. Doesn't occur in English: like the "oo" in "book", "foot" but pronounced with the lips spread wide instead of rounded.
2. But the participial ending nd is always stressed and pronounced [ant].

o

[o]

Like the "o" in "go", but a pure vowel, with no "w" at the end.

[]

Like French "eu" or German "": say "e" as in "met" with rounded lips. In 2 old words, sttanneu and lgneu, the letter is used instead.

o

[u]

Like the "oo" in "soon"

u

1. [u]
2. [w]
3. [U]

1. Normally like "oo" in "moon"
2. When unstressed before or after another vowel, like "w" in "wet"
3. In the ending iun, the n is silent and the u is nasalised, like Portuguese "um".

[]

Like French "u" or German "": say "ee" with rounded lips.

1. []
2. [u]

1. Normally like "u" in "cut", "sun".
2. In four words, dceu, dceuit, dcit, dciar, pronounced like "oo" in "soon".

 

 

 

 

Any other accent marks, eg. , , indicate stress and do not affect the pronunciation of a word. See Stress and Accents.

Consonants

b

[b]

Like "b" in "bite".

bh

[v]

like "v" in "vow"

c

1. [k]
2. [C]

1. Always hard like "c" in "cat", except when followed by e or i.
2. Before e or i (but not ), like "ch" in "cheese". If the ce or ci precedes another vowel, as in ceai, ancint, then the e or i is not pronounced, and merely serves to indicate the "ch" pronunciation ([Caj], [anC'nt]).

[s]

Like "s" in "say"

ch

[k]

Always pronounced like "k", as in English "chorus".

c'h

1. [x]
2. []

1. Usually has the "scraping" sound of "ch" in German "machen" or Gaelic "loch".
2. After the sounds [i] and [] (also initially before these same vowels), this sound is palatalised, as in German "ich", Gaelic "smaoinich".

h

[G]

The voiced equivalent of c'h above. A rare sound in Talossan, occurring chiefly in Berber loan words. This sound may be found in older texts spelt r'.

d

1. [d]
2. [D]

1. Normally like "d" in "do"
2. Between two vowels (including at the beginning of a word when the preceeding word ends in a vowel), softened to the "th" of "this", "then".

[D]

Like the "th" in "this", "then". May be spelt th instead.

dd

[d]

Always hard like the "d" in "do"

dh

[D]

Like "th" in "this", "then".

f

[f]

Like "f" in "fit"

fh

[h]

like "h" in "hot"

g

1. [g]
2. [J]

1. Always hard like "g" in "go", except in the four words below.
2. In the words ageu, legeu, regeu and regipts, pronounced like "g" in "gentle".

glh

[L]

Like "lli" in "million"

gh

[N]

Like "ni" in "onion"

h

[h]

Like "h" in "hot"

k

[k]

Like "k" in "kit"; used only in foreign words.

l

1. [l]
2. [H]
3. [w]
4. [-]
5. [D]

1. Normally like "l" in "lake".
2. In the combinations lc, lp, lt, the l is devoiced; keep your tongue in the position to say "l", but push your breath out around in instead.
3. At the end of a word after any vowel except [o], [], [u] or [], pronounced like "w" in "wet".
4. Silent at the end of a word after the sounds [o] and [u].
5. At the beginning of a word when the preceeding word ends in a vowel, pronounced like "th" in "this", "then".

lh

[L]

Like "lli" in "million", except in the pronoun lhor which is pronounced [Dor].

ll

[l]

Always like "l" in "lake".

m

[m]

Like "m" in "man"

mh

[v]

Like "v" in "vow"

n

1. [n]
2. [-]
3. []

1. Normally like "n" in "now".
2. In the ending iun, it is silent but nasalises the u.
3. Before the sounds [k] and [g], pronounced like "n" in "sink"

[]

Like "ng" in "sing"

ng

1. []
2. [g]

1. At the end of a word, like "ng" in "sing".
2. In the middle of a word, like "ng" in "finger".

nh

[N]

Like "ny" in "canyon"

p

[p]

Like "p" in "pat"

ph

[f]

Like "ph" in "telephone", "philosophy".

q

[kj]

When followed by any vowel except u, pronounced "ky", like the "c" in "cute".

qu

[kw]

Like "qu" in "quit"

r

1. [r]
2. [S]

1. Normally a rolled or trilled "r", as in Spanish and Italian.
2. In the infinitive endings ar and ar, pronounced like "sh" in "wash".

rh

1. [S]
2. [r]

1. In the future tense ending -arh-, pronounced like "sh" in "wash".
2. Elsewhere pronounced as a normal [r].

s

1. [s]
2. [z]

1. Normally like "s" in "sit" (but often pronounced more apically as in Castillian Spanish)
2. In the endings -sor, -os, -s, pronounced like "s" in "rose".

sch

[S]

Like "sh" in "shush"

s'ch

[sk]

Like "sch" in "schism"

sc'h

[sx]

"s" as in "sit" followed by the [x] sound, as in Dutch "schoen", "schip".

s-ch

[SC]

"sh" as in "shut" followed by "ch" as in "chip", as in the phrase "fresh cheese".

sh

[S]

Like "sh" in "ship"

[s]

Like "s" in "say"

t

[t]

Like "t" in "top"

tg

[T]

Like "th" in "thin", "thick"; an alternate spelling for (see below).

th

1. [D]
2. [h]

1. When used as an alternate spelling for , like "th" in "this", "then".
2. When indicating an old mutation, like "h" in "hot".

tx

[Z]

Like "s" in "vision", "pleasure".

tz

[c]

Like "ts" in "hits", "cats".

v

[v]

Like "v" in "vow"

vh

[w]

Like "w" in "wet"

w

[w], [v]

Used only in foreign loanwords and pronounced as in the language of origin (generally [w] or [v]).

x

1. [ks]
2. [S]

1. Normally like "x" in "fix", "box".
2. In the endings -eux, -ux, pronounced like "sh" in "ship".

xh

[J]

Like "j" in "job".

y

[y], [i]

Used only in foreign loanwords and pronounced as in the language of origin (usually [y] or [i]).

z

1. [z]
2. [c]

1. Normally like "z" in "zip".
2. In the ending -ziun and in words based on the root scurz-, pronounced like "ts" in "hits".

[T]

Like "th" in "thick", "thin"; may be spelt tg instead.


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